Design and Construction Criteria of Twin Tunnel: Taking an Adverse Wind Condition Effects on Air Pollution Short Circuit at Tunnel Portals as a case
This paper aims to study the influence of the tunnel portal designs, wind conditions and ventilation rate on the amount of air pollution short circuit from one tunnel tube to the other. These effects are investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code used a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method to control air quality inside the tunnel and reduced as far as possible a short circuited (flow Recirculation) flow level. A validation of CFD code to experimental data in 1:100 scale model of the road traffic tunnel tested in wind-tunnel showed that the CFD gave satisfactory prediction of the air pollution short circuit in the vicinity of tunnel portal. The predicted concentration of the gas tracer (CO2) used as the safety criterion provide the useful information about a short circuit amount resulted for each structural variant of tunnel portals, such as a central dividing wall built as extensions from the end of road tunnel and offset tunnel portal entrance exit tested under different speed ratio of wind and ventilation. A detailed look at results is beyond the scope of analysis to determine optimal air pollution short circuit percentages. Finally, the perfect tunnel portals geometry can be suggested.
Baumann, H.O., (1979). Air Recirculation between Tunnel Portals. 3rd Int. Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, Sheffield.
Brousse, B., Vidal, B., Ponticq, X., Goupil, G., & Alary, R. (2005). Pollution dispersion at an urban motorway tunnel portal: Comparison of the small-scale predictive study with the actual conditions measured on the site. Atmospheric Environment, 39(13), 2459-2473.
Chock, D. P. (1982). Pollutant dispersion near roadways—experiments and modeling. Science of the Total Environment, 25(2), 111-132.
Dagnew, A. K., & Bitsuamlak, G. T. (2014). Computational evaluation of wind loads on a standard tall building using LES. Wind and Structures, 18(5), 567-598.
Dagnew, A., & Bitsuamlak, G. T. (2013). Computational evaluation of wind loads on buildings: a review. Wind Struct, 16(6), 629-660.
Davidson, L., & Nielsen, P, (1996). Large eddy simulation of the flow in a three-dimensional ventilation room. 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT96, July 17–19.
Gehrig, S., Buchmann, R., & Yousaf, R. (2013). How much flow recirculation is acceptable at tunnel portals?. World Tunnel Congress, Geneva Underground – the way to the future! G. Anagnostou & H. Ehrbar. Eds Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Gourdol, F., (2004). Study on a mock-up of a dispersion scenario at tunnel portal-test report. CETU Guide, Environmental studies in road projects "Air" and "Health" sections the specific case of tunnels. École Central de Lyon France. http://www.cetu.developpement-durable.gouv.fr
Kashef, A., Lougheed, G. D., & Benichou, N. (2003). Numerical Modelling of Movement and Behaviour of Smoke Produced from Fires in the Ville-Marie and LH-La Fontaine Tunnel: Literature Review. Ottawa: Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada.
Koopmans, J. F. W. (2005). Air pollution short circuit effects of road traffic tunnel portal. In Symposium Air Quality Management Vol. 7, Istanbul.
Li, S. W., Hu, Z. Z., Tse, K. T., & Weerasuriya, A. U. (2016). Wind direction field under the influence of topography: part II: CFD investigations. Wind Struct, 22(4), 477-501.
Lim, H. C., & Ohba, M. (2015). Detached eddy simulation of flow around rectangular bodies with different aspect ratios. Wind and Structures, 20(1), 37-58.
Lipecki, T., & Flaga, A. (2013). Vortex excitation model. Part I. mathematical description and numerical implementation. Wind and Structures, 16(5), 457-476.
McGrattan, K., Hostikka, S., McDermott, R., Floyd, J., Weinschenk, C., & Overholt, K. (2013). Fire dynamics simulator user’s guide. NIST special publication, 1019(6).
Mirzai, M. H., Harvey, J. K., & Jones, C. D. (1994). Wind tunnel investigation of dispersion of pollutants due to wind flow around a small building. Atmospheric Environment, 28(11), 1819-1826.
Muhic, S., & Mazej, M. (2014). Computational study of road tunnel exposure to severe wind conditions. Wind and Structures, 19(2), 185-197.
Murakami, S. (1998). Overview of turbulence models applied in CWE–1997. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 74, 1-24.
Musser, A., McGrattan, K. B., & Palmer, J. M. (2001). Evaluation of a fast, simplified computational fluid dynamics model for solving room airflow problems (No. NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR)-6760).
Nadel, C., Thompson, K.A., Slusarczyk, J.L. & Vanderheyden, M.D. (2003). Use of wind tunnel testing to develop air rights structures over tunnel exit portals that are compliant with ambient air quality standards. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, Luzern, Switzerland.
Oettl, D., Sturm, P., Almbauer, R., Okamoto, S. I., & Horiuchi, K. (2003). Dispersion from road tunnel portals: comparison of two different modelling approaches. Atmospheric Environment, 37(37), 5165-5175.
Peila, D., & Pelizza, S. (2002). Criteria for technical and environmental design of tunnel portals. Tunnelling and underground space technology, 17(4), 335-340.
Rehm, R. G., & Baum, H. R. (1978). The equations of motion for thermally driven, buoyant flows. Journal of Research of the NBS, 83(3), 297-308.
Smagorinsky, J. (1963) General Circulation Experiments with the primitive equations I, The basic experiment. Monthly Weather review: 91-99.
Tan, X., Chen, W., Dai, Y., Wu, G., Yang, J., Jia, S., ... & Li, F. (2015). Experimental research on the mixture mechanism of polluted and fresh air at the portal of small-space road tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 50, 118-128.
Tanaka, F., Kawabata, N., & Ura, F. (2016). Effects of a transverse external wind on natural ventilation during fires in shallow urban road tunnels with roof openings. Fire Safety Journal, 79, 20-36.
Vauquelin, O. & Lesueur, H., 1998. Etude expérimentale sur maquette du recyclage de l'air vicié en tête d'un tunnel bitude. Université de Valenciennes, report for Scetauroute DTTS. 'Unpublished results'
Weerasuriya, A. U., Hu, Z. Z., Li, S. W., & Tse, K. T. (2016). Wind direction field under the influence of topography, part I: A descriptive model. Wind Struct, 22(4), 455-476.
Yang, Y. R., He, C., Zeng, Y. H., & Fang, Y. (2012). Effect of structural factors on waste gas cross flowing around portal of highway tunnels. Zhongguo Gonglu Xuebao(China Journal of Highway and Transport), 25(4), 107-112.
Yousaf, R., Gehrig, S., & Buchmann, R. (2014). Evaluating smoke recirculation potential at the portal of a swiss road tunnel in case of a fire. In 7th international conference on tunnel safety and ventilation. pp. 118-125.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.