Geopolymer Cement: an Initiative towards the Replacement of Grey Cement by Green Cement in Future

  • M. Mukesh Kumar Dalmia Cement Research Centre, Research Unit of Dalmia Cement Bharat Ltd. Chennai-600116, Tamilnadu, India.
  • K. Asis Kumar Dalmia Cement Research Centre, Research Unit of Dalmia Cement Bharat Ltd. Chennai-600116, Tamilnadu, India.
Keywords: Geopolymer Cement, Green Cement, Carbon Foot Print, Green Revolution, Alkali Activator

Abstract

The emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from the production of Ordinary Portland Cement and Blended Portland Cement have widely affected the environment with increase in infrastructure development worldwide. Secondly, due to the continuous mining of limestone for the production of cement there is also simultaneous depletion of natural resources and hardly will it last up to maximum 40 years. Hence we need to switch over to some other alternate binders for constructions purpose in future. Geopolymer Cement is one of the inventions which is produced by a polymeric chain reaction of alkali-activated alumino-silicate materials better known as alkali activator (NaOH/Na2SiO3) binders with the industrial by-product materials such as Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash, Slag, Crusher Dust etc. and provides high compressive strength which is comparable to BPC and reduces the carbon foot print. The objective of our study is to prepare the low CO2 foot print green Geopolymer Cement which may substitute the Ordinary Portland Cement and Blended Portland Cement in future and will helpful to reduce the greenhouse effect up to some extent and takes an initiative towards the green revolution movement.

References

Alonso, S., & Palomo, A. (2001). Alkaline activation of metakaolin and calcium hydroxide mixtures: influence of temperature, activator concentration and solids ratio. Materials Letters, 47(1-2), 55-62.

Atiş, C. D., Görür, E. B., Karahan, O. K. A. N., Bilim, C., İlkentapar, S. E. R. H. A. N., & Luga, E. (2015). Very high strength (120 MPa) class F fly ash geopolymer mortar activated at different NaOH amount, heat curing temperature and heat curing duration. Construction and building materials, 96, 673-678.

Babajide, O., Musyoka, N., Petrik, L., & Ameer, F. (2012). Novel zeolite Na-X synthesized from fly ash as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production. Catalysis Today, 190(1), 54-60.

Bell, J. L., Sarin, P., Provis, J. L., Haggerty, R. P., Driemeyer, P. E., Chupas, P. J., van Deventer, J. S. J., & Kriven, W. M. (2008). Atomic structure of a cesium aluminosilicate geopolymer: a pair distribution function study. Chemistry of Materials, 20(14), 4768-4776.

Davidovits, J. (1989). Geopolymers and geopolymeric materials. Journal of thermal analysis, 35(2), 429-441.

Deb, P. S., Nath, P., & Sarker, P. K. (2014). The effects of ground granulated blast-furnace slag blending with fly ash and activator content on the workability and strength properties of geopolymer concrete cured at ambient temperature. Materials & Design, 62, 32-39.

Diaz, E. I., Allouche, E. N., & Eklund, S. (2010). Factors affecting the suitability of fly ash as source material for geopolymers. Fuel, 89(5), 992-996.

Hardjito, D., Wallah, S. E., Sumajouw, D. M., & Rangan, B. V. (2004). On the development of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Materials Journal, 101(6), 467-472.

Hu, S., Wang, H., Zhang, G., & Ding, Q. (2008). Bonding and abrasion resistance of geopolymeric repair material made with steel slag. Cement and concrete composites, 30(3), 239-244.

Huang, J., Xu, W., Chen, H., & Xu, G. (2020). Elucidating how ionic adsorption controls the rheological behavior of quartz and cement-quartz paste. Construction and Building Materials, 272, 121957.

Hubler, M. H., Thomas, J. J., & Jennings, H. M. (2011). Influence of nucleation seeding on the hydration kinetics and compressive strength of alkali activated slag paste. Cement and Concrete Research, 41(8), 842-846.

Kim, J. H., & Lee, H. S. (2017). Improvement of early strength of cement mortar containing granulated blast furnace slag using industrial byproducts. Materials, 10(9), 1050.

Kim, M. S., Jun, Y., Lee, C., & Oh, J. E. (2013). Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag. Cement and concrete research, 54, 208-214.

Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Panarese, W. C., MacLeod, N. F., & McGrath, R. J. (2002). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Seventh Canadian Edition, Cement Association of Canada, 151.

Kumar, S., Kumar, R., & Mehrotra, S. P. (2010). Influence of granulated blast furnace slag on the reaction, structure and properties of fly ash based geopolymer. Journal of materials science, 45(3), 607-615.

Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Alex, T. C., Bandopadhyay, A., & Mehrotra, S. P. (2005). Effect of mechanically activated fly ash on the properties of geopolymer cement. In Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Geopolymer (pp. 113-116).

Laskar, S. M., & Talukdar, S. (2017). Preparation and tests for workability, compressive and bond strength of ultra-fine slag based geopolymer as concrete repairing agent. Construction and Building Materials, 154, 176-190.

Lawrence, C.D. (1998). The Production of Low-Energy Cements, In: HEWEIT, P, C (Eds.), Lea's. Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 421.

Nikolov, A., Nugteren, H., & Rostovsky, I. (2020). Optimization of geopolymers based on natural zeolite clinoptilolite by calcination and use of aluminate activators. Construction and Building Materials, 243, 118257.

Palomo, A., & dela Fuente, J. L. (2003). Alkali-activated cementitous materials: Alternative matrices for the immobilisation of hazardous wastes: Part I. Stabilisation of boron. Cement and Concrete Research, 33(2), 281-288.

Part, W. K., Ramli, M., & Cheah, C. B. (2015). An overview on the influence of various factors on the properties of geopolymer concrete derived from industrial by-products. Construction and Building Materials, 77, 370-395.

Petek, A. G., Masanet, E., Horvath, A., & Stadel, A. (2014). Life-cycle inventory analysis of concrete production: A critical review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 51, 38-48.

Phoo-ngernkham, T., Maegawa, A., Mishima, N., Hatanaka, S., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2015). Effects of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions on compressive and shear bond strengths of FA–GBFS geopolymer. Construction and Building Materials, 91, 1-8.

Qiao, Z., Liu, Q., Zhang, S., & Wu, Y. (2019). The mineralogical characteristics between opaline silica in bentonite and α-cristobalite. Solid State Sciences, 96, 105948.

Rajan, H. S., & Kathirvel, P. (2020). Sustainable development of geopolymer binder using sodium silicate synthesized from agricultural waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 124959.

Rashad, M., Sabu, U., Logesh, G., Srishilan, C., Lodhe, M., Joy, A., & Balasubramanian, M. (2020). Mullite phase evolution in clay with hydrated or anhydrous AlF3. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 40(15), 5974-5983.

Shi, C., Jiménez, A. F., & Palomo, A. (2011). New cements for the 21st century: The pursuit of an alternative to Portland cement. Cement and concrete research, 41(7), 750-763.

Van Jaarsveld, J. G. S., Van Deventer, J. S. J., & Lukey, G. C. (2002). The effect of composition and temperature on the properties of fly ash-and kaolinite-based geopolymers. Chemical Engineering Journal, 89(1-3), 63-73.

Published
2021-01-18
How to Cite
Mukesh Kumar , M., & Asis Kumar , K. (2021). Geopolymer Cement: an Initiative towards the Replacement of Grey Cement by Green Cement in Future. Journal of Building Materials and Structures, 8(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4509606
Section
Original Articles