Bidayat <p>Bidayat is an international, refereed quarterly academic journal issued by the University of Laghouat with double arbitration and review. It is an open source academic journal that publishes research, linguistic, literary, and critical studies and related matters, and intellectual research in the field of human sciences in general, as well as research and studies in international literature. ... The magazine receives serious research and studies in languages ​​(Arabic, French, English and Spanish). It is also interested in scientific and academic activities through national and international forums and conferences that meet the scientific and methodological conditions and rules that qualify it for publication.<br>Our magazine aims with full confidence and pride to develop scientific research and knowledge, and to document the specialized academic scientific output. We want the journal to be a window for publishing original scientific production that will be presented in scientific councils and promotion committees, in accordance with the rules and regulations of promotion committees in Algeria and the Arab world, documented and trustworthy from That would promote research to the ranks of global research.</p> University of Laghouat – ALGERIA en-US Bidayat 2716-8905 Linguistics investment in grammar education <p>This research paper seeks to highlight the compatibility between ancient Arab grammar and modern linguistics, which makes the possibility of linking the link between these two mentioned parties existing, and if the knowledge backgrounds and origins of the origins differ, and therefore the possibility of employing and investing in linguistics to teach grammar and teach it is necessary to shed light on it because of its Of great importance for an explanation and analysis.</p> بوفاتح عبد العليم Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 1 17 Arabic language controls before the descent of the Holy Quran Points - shape - sizes <p>The topic of the Noble Qur’an’s drawing, the multiplicity of his readings, the difference in grammarians in directing these readings, and some questioned that the first grammarians were not satisfied with the marks that Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali put when he said to his writer: “If you see me, I open my mouth, then I put a point above the last letter, and if you see me my mouth is put, then put a point under another The letter, and if you see me combine my mouth then put another point of the letter `` This is what we find in the sources - and the problem that we present in this research is: Did the Arabic know the points, the shape and the volumes, before the Holy Qur’an is gone? There are novels, texts, opinions, and others that attempt to interpret the matter objectively.</p> عبد القادر بن التواتي Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 18 28 The levels of educational Target under the approach to objectives <p>&nbsp; The educational system in Algeria has gone through two major stages: the first represented traditional education, which was a critical criticism of psychologists and education, and the second was the modern education station embodied in the pedagogical approaches, education with Targets and the model of education with competencies. It is the basis of the pedagogy of education with Target, aiming to answer the following problem: What are the reasons for the differing opinions of the learners about setting levels of Target in terms of number and title?</p> عبد القادر قصاب Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 29 40 mystic Intertextualité is the Intertextualité of the language of alienation in the poetry of Abdullah al-Ashi's <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The adventure of creation, innovation, permanent experimentation, and the continuous artistic adventure in the poetry of Abdullah Al-Ashi - led him to draw inspiration from the Sufi tributary as a poetic modernist tendency in which the text fused with the situation, and through which language and language converged, and the present merges into it with heritage, with all the aesthetic and artistic integration of the poem. Modernism on its various dimensions, formal, structural and moral, and we have taken the experience of mystic alienation in the poetry of Abdullah Al-Ashi as a poetic form of modern aesthetic stems from the anxious spirit characterized by the desire to sublimate absolutely, to depict its current state in an ideal mystical dress, dictated by his theoretical poetic experience and Kta Not behavioral, depicting the unstable, disturbed state of reality, fleeing in search of a state of serenity and anonymity between the folds of the word and poetic language, to express his fate and his emotional state, so Abd al-Ashi’s mystical alienation is an honest expression of an intellectual vision that distracts the beloved and explores him, for nothing but to preserve On his existence and transcendence, and his ontological sublimation deepening psychological suffering and spiritual torments, which would strengthen the creative sensitivity of the creative poet - Abdullah Al Ashi - as long as creativity is born of suffering, then the poet must replace from the Sufism the poetic and psychological features that contribute to crystallizing his experience and success. A - The alienation of the mystic experience only that experience where poets find modernists general and Abdullah Ashi private Dhalthm desired poetic expression and vision research and the extent of Mnchud-</p> المختار نارة بولرباح عثماني Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 41 54 Phonetic proportion in the Quranic supplication Voice study <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>In this article, we proceed from a general perception of the idea of ​​Nroom to reveal its features and clarify its manifestations. We mean the idea of ​​the audio miracle of the Holy Quran. Other than one of the scholars studying the miracle of the Noble Qur’an has gone on to be a miracle in its entirety (), and we imagine that the audio miracle is within this sentence, rather it is a great constituent of its constituents, just as the phonological systems are inside the entire Qur’anic systems, there is no doubt that the Qur’anic systems are at the apex of Eloquence The basis of this perception is that the miracle of the Noble Qur’an is a structural, miraculous, miraculous miracle. The language of the Qur’an is a miracle language at all levels, starting with the audio and morphological level, passing through the syntactic level, and ending with the semantic level. The components and their attachment, harmony and embrace these levels, just as they meet the scattered reefs in the valley canal. We chose the method of supplication to highlight some aspects of this miracle, although we do not doubt that the secret of this miracle is valid in the whole system of the Qur’an in all its different methods, the multiplicity of its topics, and the unique aspects of its conversations, and we may have stops with other methods on this occasion.</p> <p>The methodological necessity required that this article be placed in a preliminary and three topics: We devoted the introduction to defining the concept of supplication and its implications, and we presented in the first topic samples of supplication with good, and in the second topic we dealt with models of supplication with evil, and in the third topic we stood on some of the audio features in the Quranic supplication as General.</p> عبد العزيز أيت بها Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 55 69 Feminine literature - concept and problematic <p>&nbsp; Women have become imposing their literary and critical production in the realm of literature and criticism alike, and this is shown by the huge literature that is found in the Arab Library of poetry, prose, narration, story and other contemporary female productions, which would create a special place for women amidst the crowd of production And the abundant male, so they proved that literary life does not belong to men alone. In fact, women in general, and Arab women in particular, remained away from the field of issuance and production for a long period of time during which men were able to possess the manifestations of power, mastery and ability, to rise to the throne of creativity, but with the spread of education, and the emergence of the categories and theses of literary literary criticism of women called The transformation of the woman from the topic of writing to the same writer, who wanders through different walks of life because of her special portrayal, and from a pure women's perspective.</p> الحاج قطاف Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 70 80 Writing and reading skills and their role in developing cultural competencies <p>Reading and writing is one of the most important skills that underlie linguistic activities in primary education. Reading is a key to discovering minds and enlightening them with various sciences. Likewise, writing also contributes to preserving cultural heritage and knowledge, as well as the educational function of these two skills, which is to raise an educated and educated generation, As the basis for teaching Arabic at all levels of education.</p> محمد رضا بركاني هشام فروم Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 81 90 The role of reading skill in way of scientific research <p>&nbsp; This paper&nbsp; aims to treat&nbsp; the role of reading skill topic in way of scientific research&nbsp; how ever spot mistakes and correct then in addition to fault definition about reading skills . otherwise how to reach or analyze and mention different main skills as reading criticism and speed reading and how to deal with libraries . however reading is an art is being thought as an easy&nbsp; way it is typically unlike as if it is thought&nbsp;&nbsp; because it has main specific style and precise method also its times parameters reo to lering and finally its major efforts reading has related by its references means sources its mean books steps and main secondary skills as we may say that research ought to reach the may outs of it to facilitate it way of research mean’s how introduce it.</p> عماد طاسي Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 91 103 , Culture of resistance in EL DJIDARIA of Mahmoud Darwish <p>The purpose of this study is to study the theoretical and practical aspects of the Palestinian poetry throughh the experience of Mahmoud Darwish, selected &amp;carom his poetry gardens "El djidaria" through which he demonstrated his ability to creativity at times and get rid of the limitations of direct political poetry. The entity and the entity of Palestine to regain the throne of the poets of the resistance, but this time in an extraordinary way from its predecessors, took from the mural and sanctuary of his green resistance to the entity, through his name, remembrance of the jadarism requires reminding the creator of this latter equivalent objective of the homeland Palestine</p> حياة حجاز زهر اليوم هطال Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 104 115 Charging and its role in textual cohesion: Selections from the Maqamat Al-Hamadhani <p>As the language is the only link that connects two worlds that are different in their nature, the world of bodies and minds, and it is a guide that is inferred from reality and a principality of the humanity of the rational and articulate human being, so many ancient and modern philosophers and scholars have meant about them, Arabs and Ajmah, who studied their nature, social function and their relationships with oneself. Humanity has multiplied their visions about it, which made us "collide - today - with a huge amount of definitions related to determining its nature, function and characteristics within a range of other communicative systems."</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;It is well known that the human mind alone is capable of interpreting texts that concepts differ in their interpretation, but they differ because of the perception of special interests or the control of certain relationships over their minds and their behavior, and not because the mind cannot explain these texts but rather, "It is only man who has a model A conceptualization of the world in which he lives, just as the linguistic system he possesses makes him able to express his perception and to choose the vocabulary of this perception voluntarily to his will. "</p> <p>The talk about semantic systems of the text is a complement to its formal linkage and a point of access to its total cohesion, because the text when it is formally related and not connected from an intellectual point of view, says that his text was not completed, and therefore the problem in this chapter revolves around this question. What are the mechanisms of harmony that have contributed to the cohesion of Maqamani shrines, after dealing with the tools of consistency in them?</p> معمر بن الغويني Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 116 126 The art of vases and light fixtures in Andalusian poetry Thematic study. <p>This article revolves around the influence of Andalusian poets on nature, and they have fallen in love with it, drenching its breathtaking beauty until their poems have become an artistic portrait depicting the beauty of nature. .</p> عبد الرحمان قاسم Copyright (c) 2019-09-02 2019-09-02 1 4 127 141 From the Greek pilgrims to the new rhetoric of Perelman. <p>Theorizing the Western rhetoric in Greece was based on political, social, judicial, and other philosophical backgrounds, and it was fueled by various intellectual trends, there was a sophist rhetoric that does not concern other than persuasion under any circumstance whatsoever and does not believe in absolute truth, and the Platonic argument with a mental authority and an idealistic view that secures In absolute truth, and a trend in which Aristotle mediated between (the sophist rhetoric) and (the Platonic Controversy), he took what agreed between them being two industries and who were aiming to influence, but Aristotle took a new analytical path in which he took from the first the identification of persuasive techniques, and left the fallacy and The For the purposes of which no morals or virtue do not prevent him, and from the second he took his focus on reason, truth and good, and left from him high idealism and distance from reality, so he had a rhetoric other than the rhetoric of the Sophists and a controversy other than the Platonic Controversy and that which he presented in his book (Rhetoric), Then the centuries later followed eloquence in the runways of changes, but they witnessed the most important development in the twentieth century when it expanded and was affected by modern approaches and became concerned with describing the rules of discourse and literary races and classification of images and improvements and clarify their functions, and pilgrims expanded in them to study philosophical and moral discourses and Social and social With Shayem Perelman, who absorbed the Western rhetorical heritage, including Aristotelian and classical, then sifted it, coordinated it and added to it, and presented it in a new garment that corresponds to the spirit of the modern era, so the new rhetoric appeared on his hands in 1958 in the book (Classified in Pilgrims, New Rhetoric) Which aims to rid the pilgrims of two charges:</p> <p>- His accusation of being a member of the Soviet public speaking, because of its fallacy, maneuvering and manipulation.</p> <p>- The charge of the strictness of the Platonic and Aristotelian reasoning, which makes the addressee in a subject of subjugation and alienation and besieging his mind, taking advantage of his awareness and lack of eloquence.</p> عبدالقادر بلعجال فضلي لعجال Copyright (c) 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 1 4 142 161