Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore Employees Intentions to Implement Green Practices
Predicting behaviors is particularly important in the field of environmental management because the environment is greatly influenced by human behavior. This paper aims to contribute to the development of an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) and to gain some insight into the motives for employees' intentions to implement green practices in Algeria as a developing country. Data were collected from the convenience sample of 182 employees in three Algerian cities using a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms and environmental knowledge is positively and significantly affect employee's intention to implement green practices. The results also suggested that perceived behavior control had no significant effect. It is expected that the results of this paper can aid policymakers and stakeholders in drafting and implementing sustainable environmental regulations in the workplace.
Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Chicago, IL: The Dorsey Press.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.The theory of planned behavior. In Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.
Aragón-Correa, J. A., Martín-Tapia, I., & Hurtado-Torres, N. E. (2013). Proactive Environmental Strategies and Employee Inclusion. Organization & Environment, 26(2), 139–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026613489034
Banwo, A. O., & Du, J. (2019). Workplace pro-environmental behaviors in small and medium-sized enterprises: an employee level analysis. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-019-0156-4
Bartiaux, F. (2008). Does environmental information overcome practice compartmentalization and change consumers' behaviors? Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(11), 1170–1180.
Chan, E. S. W., & Hawkins Rebecca, R. (2010). Attitude towards EMSs in an international hotel: An exploratory case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 29(4), 641–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.12.002
Chan, E. S. W., & Hon, A. H. Y. (2020). Application of the extended theory of planned behavior model to ecological behavior intentions in the food and beverage service industry. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 23(2), 169-191.
Chan, E. S. W., Hon, A. H. Y., Chan, W., & Okumus, F. (2014). What drives employees' intentions to implement green practices in hotels? The role of knowledge, awareness, concern, and ecological behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.03.001
Chen, C. F., & Knight, K. (2014). The energy at work: Social psychological factors affecting energy conservation intentions within Chinese electric power companies. Energy Research and Social Science, 4, 23–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.08.004
Coelho, F., Pereira, M. C., Cruz, L., Simões, P., & Barata, E. (2017). Affect and the adoption of pro-environmental behavior: A structural model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 54, 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.10.008
DiPietro, R. B., Cao, Y., & Partlow, C. (2013). Green practices in upscale foodservice operations: Customer perceptions and purchase intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), 779–796.
Dixon, G. N., Deline, M. B., McComas, K., Chambliss, L., & Hoffmann, M. (2015). Saving energy at the workplace: The salience of behavioral antecedents and sense of community. Energy Research and Social Science, 6, 121–127.
Fielding, K. S., McDonald, R., & Louis, W. R. (2008). Theory of planned behavior, identity, and intentions to engage in environmental activism. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 318-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.03.003
Fryxell, G. E., & Lo, C. W. H. (2003). The Influence of Environmental Knowledge and Values on Managerial Behaviours on Behalf of the Environment: An Empirical Examination of Managers in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(1), 45–69.
Gao, L., Wang, S., Li, J., & Li, H. (2017). Application of the extended theory of planned behavior to understand an individual's energy-saving behavior in workplaces. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 127, 107–113.
Gifford, R., & Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behavior: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 49(3), 141–157.
Greaves, M., Zibarras, L. D., & Stride, C. (2013). Using the theory of planned behavior to explore environmental behavioral intentions in the workplace. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 109-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.02.003
Ham, M., Jeger, M., & Ivković, A. F. (2015). The role of subjective norms in forming the intention to purchase green food. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja 28(1), 738-748. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2015.1083875
Hameed, Z., Khan, I. U., Islam, T., Sheikh, Z., & Naeem, R. M. (2020). Do green HRM practices influence employees' environmental performance? International Journal of Manpower, 41(7), 1061-1079. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-08-2019-0407
Harvey, D. M., Bosco, S. M., & Emanuele, G. (2010). The impact of "green-collar workers" on organizations. Management Research Review, 33(5), 499-511.
Homburg, A., & Stolberg, A. (2006). Explaining pro-environmental behavior with a cognitive theory of stress. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26(11), 1-14.
Howell, R. A. (2011). Lights, camera ... action? Altered attitudes and behavior in response to the climate change film The Age of Stupid. Global Environmental Change, 21(1), 177–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.09.004
Kaiser, F. G., & Fuhrer, U. (2003). Ecological Behavior's Dependency on Different Forms of Knowledge. Applied Psychology, 52(4), 598-613.
Kaiser, F. G., Wölfing, S., & Fuhrer, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19(1), 1–19.
Kim, M. S., Kim, J., & Thapa, B. (2018). Influence of environmental knowledge on effect, nature affiliation, and pro-environmental behaviors among tourists. Sustainability, 10(9), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093109
Li, D., Zhao, L., Ma, S., Shao, S., & Zhang, L. (2019). What influences an individual's pro-environmental behavior? A literature review. Resources, Conservation, and Recycling. 146, 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.03.024
Liobikiene, G., & Poškus, M. S. (2019). The importance of environmental knowledge for private and public sphere pro-environmental behavior: Modifying the Value-Belief-Norm theory. Sustainability, 11(12), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10023324
Liu, P., Teng, M., & Han, C. (2020). How does environmental knowledge translate into pro-environmental behaviors?: The mediating role of environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions. Science of the Total Environment, 728, 1-14.
Liu, X., Zou, Y., & Wu, J. (2018). Factors influencing public-sphere pro-environmental behavior among Mongolian college students: A test of the value-belief-norm theory. Sustainability, 10(5), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051384
Malhotra, N.K. (2010), Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation (6th Ed.), New Jersey: Pearson.
Matthies, E., Selge, S., & Klöckner, C. A. (2012). The role of parental behavior for the development of behavior-specific environmental norms - The example of recycling and re-use behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32(3), 277-284.
Michelsen, G., & Fischer, D. (2017). Sustainability and Education. In M. v. Hauff & C. Kuhnke (Eds.), Sustainable Development Policy. A European Perspective (pp. 135–158). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315269177
Norton, T. A., Parker, S. L., Zacher, H., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2015). Employee Green Behavior: A Theoretical Framework, Multilevel Review, and Future Research Agenda. Organization and Environment, 28(1), 103–125.
Oĝuz, D., Çakci, I., & Kavas, S. (2010). Environmental awareness of university students in Ankara, Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(19), 2629–2636.
Ones, D.S., & Dilchert, S. (2012). ). Employee green behaviors. In S. E. Jackson, D. S. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.), Managing human resources for environmental sustainability (pp. 85-116). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Otto, S., & Pensini, P. (2017). Nature-based environmental education of children: Environmental knowledge and connectedness to nature, together, are related to ecological behavior. Global Environmental Change, 47, 88–94.
Polonsky, M. J., Vocino, A., Grau, S. L., Garma, R., & Ferdous, A. S. (2012). The impact of general and carbon-related environmental knowledge on attitudes and behavior of US consumers. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(3-4), 238–263.
Renwick, D. W. S., Redman, T., & Maguire, S. (2013). Green Human Resource Management: A Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00328.x
Sawitri, D. R., Hadiyanto, H., & Hadi, S. P. (2015). Pro-environmental Behavior from a SocialCognitive Theory Perspective. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23, 27-33.
Shen, J., Dumont, J., & Deng, X. (2018). Employees' Perceptions of Green HRM and Non-Green Employee Work Outcomes: The Social Identity and Stakeholder Perspectives. Group and Organization Management, 43(4), 594–622.
Sommer, L. (2011). The Theory Of Planned Behaviour And The Impact Of Past Behaviour. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 10(1), 91-110.
Tam, K. P. (2019). Understanding the psychology X politics interaction behind environmental activism: The roles of governmental trust, the density of environmental NGOs, and democracy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, in press.
Tang, Z., Warkentin, M., & Wu, L. (2019). Understanding employees' energy-saving behavior from the perspective of stimulus-organism-responses. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 140, 2016-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.09.030
Tian, H., Zhang, J., & Li, J. (2020). The relationship between pro-environmental attitude and employee green behavior: the role of motivational states and green work climate perceptions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 7341–7352.
Tonglet, M., Phillips, P. S., & Read, A. D. (2004). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate the determinants of recycling behavior: A case study from Brixworth, UK. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 41(3), 191–214.
Unsworth, K. L., Dmitrieva, A., & Adriasola, E. (2013). Changing behavior: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro-environmental behavior change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(2), 211-229. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1837
Vahdati, S., & Vahdati, S. (2018). Identifying the obstacles to green human resource management practices in Iran. International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management, 3(1), 9–18.
Wang, S., Wang, J., Ru, X., Li, J., & Zhao, D. (2019). Understanding employee's electricity conservation behavior in the workplace: Do normative, emotional, and habitual factors matter? Journal of Cleaner Production, 215, 1070–1077.
Wesselink, R., Blok, V., & Ringersma, J. (2017). Pro-environmental behavior in the workplace and the role of managers and organizations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 1679-1687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.214
Winter, D.D.N., Koger, S. M. (2014). The Psychology of Environmental Problems: Psychology for Sustainability (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Yuriev, A., Boiral, O., Francoeur, V., & Paillé, P. (2018). Overcoming the barriers to pro-environmental behaviors in the workplace: A systematic review. In Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 379–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.041
Yuriev, A., Boiral, O., & Guillaumie, L. (2020). Evaluating the determinants of employees' pro-environmental behavioral intentions. International Journal of Manpower, 41(7), 1005-1019. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-08-2019-0387
Zsóka, Á., Szerényi, Z. M., Széchy, A., & Kocsis, T. (2013). Greening due to environmental education? Environmental knowledge, attitudes, consumer behavior, and everyday pro-environmental activities of Hungarian high school and university students. Journal of Cleaner Production, 48, 126–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.030
Copyright (c) 2021 BOUARAR Ahmed Chemseddine, MOULOUDJ Kamel
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.